Access control is a security mechanism that determines what actions users or entities are allowed to perform on a system, network, or resource. It is a fundamental aspect of information security and is implemented to protect sensitive data, prevent unauthorized access, and maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of resources.
Discretionary Access Control (DAC): In this model, the owner of a resource has full control over who can access it and what actions they can perform. Owners can grant or revoke permissions as they see fit, making it flexible but potentially vulnerable if the owner makes poor access decisions.
Mandatory Access Control (MAC): In MAC, access decisions are based on predefined security labels or clearances assigned to users and objects. These labels are usually hierarchical, and access is granted or denied based on predefined rules and policies.
Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): RBAC is a model where access decisions are based on a user’s role within an organization. Users are assigned specific roles, and each role has associated permissions. This simplifies access management and makes it easier to enforce security policies.
Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC): ABAC is a more flexible access control model that uses attributes to determine access decisions. These attributes can include user characteristics, resource properties, and environmental factors. ABAC allows for fine-grained control over access.
Rule-Based Access Control (RBAC): In RBAC, access decisions are made based on predefined rules and conditions. These rules dictate what actions are allowed or denied for specific users or roles.